Total, 44 years." We are left guessing whether the XXIV dynasty lasted for 6 years, 44, or 990.

The names and ages Manetho gave for the kings of the two dynasties we know the most about, the eighteenth and nineteenth, were proven wrong in almost every instance when compared with the evidence left by the pharaohs themselves. Breasted to describe Manetho's history as "a late, careless and uncritical compilation, which can be proven wrong from the contemporary monuments in the vast majority of cases, where such monuments have survived.

A tomb just on the outskirts of the Giza site dates from the reign of the First dynasty Pharaoh Wadj (Djet), and jar sealings discovered in a tomb in the southern part of Giza mention the Third dynasty Pharaoh Ninetjer.

great sphinx of giza carbon dating-42great sphinx of giza carbon dating-3

The list also has no record of Kings from the second intermediate period.

Royal list from Saqqara - Discovered in the tomb of the Royal scribe Thunery at Saqquara.

While the Kings-lists are only able to offer us the sequence of Pharaohs, there have been two radiocarbon studies on the Giza complex which allowing us to put dates to the names on the list. In the 1980s several ancient Egyptian monuments, including the Great Pyramid, were radiocarbon dated.

Radiocarbon dating cannot be applied to stone, but it can be used to date fragments of organic material, such as wood and charcoal, which are sometimes found embedded in the mortar between the stone blocks.

This is in accordance with traditional theories about the pyramids.

The stone for this temple is believed to have come from the sphinx enclosure.

The two versions do not agree on names, or on the counting of years.

To give just one example, Syncellus, who copied Africanus' list, wrote, "The twenty-fourth dynasty, Bocchoris of Sais, for six years: in his reign a lamb spoke [a short gap in the manuscript] 990 years." Meanwhile Eusebius wrote, "Bocchoris of Sais for 44 years: in his reign a lamb spoke.

It is said that Manetho's main goal was to prove to the Greeks that the Egyptians were the world's oldest people, but that he faced competition; Berosus was trying to do the same thing with his homeland, Mesopotamia, while the chief librarian of the Alexandria library, Erastosthenes, also claimed great antiquity for the Greeks.

It was Manetho who compiled Egyptian history into the thirty dynasties we are familiar with today.

"Furthermore, it looks like Manetho "cooked the books," stretching out the history of Egypt as long as he could get away with, by adding years which did not exist, listing kings who shared the throne (co-regencies) as ruling alone, and dynasties as proceeding one after another, when many may have overlapped, especially during the intermediate periods.