The Lieber Code said in Article 36: "If such works of art, libraries, collections, or instruments belonging to a hostile nation or government, can be removed without injury, the ruler of the conquering state or nation may order them to be seized and removed for the benefit of the said nation.The ultimate ownership is to be settled by the ensuing treaty of peace." The Lieber Code further defined the conditions of looting and the relationship between private plunder and booty and institutionalized looting "All captures and booty belong, according to the modern law of war, primarily to the government of the captor." (Article 45), "Neither officers nor soldiers are allowed to make use of their position or power in the hostile country for private gain, not even for commercial transactions otherwise legitimate." (Article 46) and "...[I]f large sums are found upon the persons of prisoners, or in their possession, they shall be taken from them, and the surplus, after providing for their own support, appropriated for the use of the army, under the direction of the commander, unless otherwise ordered by the government." (Article 72) Massive art looting occurred during World War II; see art theft during World War II.

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Looted art has been a consequence of looting during war, natural disaster and riot for centuries.

Looting of art, archaeology and other cultural property may be an opportunistic criminal act or may be a more organized case of unlawful or unethical pillage by the victor of a conflict.

Armenian Studies Program Library Catalog New-The Armenian Studies Program announces that a catalog of the books in the Armenian Studies Program collection is now available for patrons to search by going to the Library Catalog link below.

The work is still in progress and patrons will have access to the works only in the Armenian Studies Program Library.

The endowment honors Haig and Isabel Berberian and was established by their son-in-law and daughter, Dr. Photo by Paul Schlesinger, The Collegian Armenian Genocide Monument to be Built on Fresno State Campus-Groundbreaking Held on Sunday, November 2, 2014Fresno—On Sunday, November 2, the Armenian Community of the San Joaquin Valley broke ground on a Monument dedicated to the 100th Anniversary of the Armenian Genocide. and took place at the Fresno State Maple Mall, located south of the Satellite Student Union.

For more information, go to the Armenian Genocide Centennial Committee-Fresno website.

Keith Watenpaugh, University of California, Davis Free admission and parking in Lots P6 or P5. The Center provides an opportunity for students and faculty to interact and currently houses the Armenian Studies Program, the Sahatdjian Armenian Studies Library, the Avedian Armenian Studies Archives, the newspaper Hye Sharzhoom/Armenian Action, the Armenian Students Organization, and the Index of Armenian Art. Other friends of the Armenian Studies Program have made significant contributions to the endowment.

For reservations contact the Armenian Studies Program at Fresno State-559.278.2669 Tuesday, April 4 • PM"Bread from Stones: The Middle East and the Making of Modern Humanitarianism"Dr. The Armenian Studies Program was established in 1977 and the Center for Armenian Studies was founded in 1988.

I will give it away free of charge for the sins you have committed throughout your land." Other famous examples include the Roman Sack of Corinth in 146 BC, the Sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade, the Sack of Baghdad in 1258, Hernán Cortés and the looting of the Aztec gold.

In only some of these was the removal of artworks for their own sake (rather than the value of their materials for example) a primary motivation.

The term "looted art" reflects bias, and whether particular art has been taken legally or illegally is often the subject of conflicting laws and subjective interpretations of governments and people; use of the term "looted art" in reference to a particular art object implies that the art was taken illegally.